This pattern endured for 350 years: on the vast plantations in the New World, sugar, tobacco, cotton, and coffee were grown, as global commodities, by slaves. In the year 1740 Elias and William Edmunds were among the first settlers in Fauquier County. As the tobacco industry continued to expand into Piedmont Virginia, there was a gradual decline in the Tidewater area. The slaves provided sufficient labor force to produce the demanding crop on the rice plantations. Perhaps only slaves in sugar cane plantations in … Picking took a few months during which time the cotton was put through the cotton gins, then pressed and finally baled before being shipped for market and export. By 1650 the frontiersmen had reached the Potomac. This established a new pattern of slavery: slaves from Africa were forcibly taken to the plantations of the Americas. In 1653 the first settlers established themselves in what is now King William County. In 1723 a traveler, who had just visited above the Falls, mentioned seeing many fields of tobacco. Sowing the rice seedlings was generally undertaken by female slaves on the rice plantations who trampled the seeds into the swampy soil with their bare feet. Slaves, both men and women, worked all year round undertaking back breaking work for up to eighteen hours per day. It is estimated that over 1.5 million children aged between 10-17 years are working in the agricultural sector. For specific facts refer to  Information about the Slave Plantations. Only a small number of acres of tobacco can be cultivated properly owing to its high value of yield per acre and the careful supervision required. The owners of the plantations were usually rich, refined gentlemen from England. Following the American Revolution, tobacco plantations spread westward to other parts of the upper South, including western Kentucky and Tennessee as well as Missouri. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. The southeastern United States is dotted with plantation homes, many of which date to before the American Revolution. Enter your email address to subscribe to AccessGenealogy and receive notifications of new posts by email. Planters began moving beyond the Fall Line soon after the turn of the century. Plantations in the Colonial SouthThe agriculture system of plantations was implemented in the Southern Colonies during Colonial Times. Tobacco became an important crop grown on the slave plantations in the 17th century. This process was so time consuming, and therefore expensive, that cotton was not grown until 1793 when Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin. Plantations made use of slaves bought as a result of the Transatlantic trade. It has been estimated that in 1624 one man could properly cultivate and harvest only about one-half of an acre of tobacco, or about 400 pounds. Southern Plantations Economy - Types of Plantations in the Colonial SouthDifferent crops were grown on the plantations but the crops most suited to the South were: The tobacco plantations were the first to emerge. Your email address will not be published. Cotton PlantationsCotton plants prosper in dry, hot sunny climates and rich soils. Crops were planted on a large scale with usually just one major plant species growing. This was especially true in Virginia and Maryland, whose plantations had less need for slaves to work their own fields due to diminishing returns from tobacco. The rice was then polished before being packed into barrels and shipped for export. In 1771 there were rumors that at least one hundred of the principal Virginia planters had given up the tobacco culture entirely and converted their plantations to something more profitable. The southern states of America, such as Virginia, were the main areas growing tobacco, with small amounts grown on the Caribbean islands. Male, female and child slaves rolling dried tobacco... Erstklassige Nachrichtenbilder in hoher Auflösung bei Getty Images In the Caribbean and South America, crops such as Sugar were more common. This article on Plantations providing facts and information about the different plantations in Colonial America: History of trade, plantations, colonialism and colonization in the 13 Colonies, Plantations: The forced labor of slaves to harvest cotton, rice, sugar and tobacco crops. In North America, the British turned to slavery for the cultivation of tobacco on plantations clustered around the Virginia, which provided an easy maritime route to Europe and, increasingly, to the centre of the tobacco trade in Glasgow. In 1648 planters in large numbers sought permission from Governor Berkeley and the Council to move across the York River, to take up the virgin and unclaimed land. The cultivation of highly lucrative rice quickly spread to all of the slave plantations in the Southern colonies and rice became one of the top ten trade exports to England during the Colonial period of American history. Expansion was further facilitated by the “head-right” system, introduced in 1618, which gave fifty acres of land to any person who transported a settler to the colony. The primary cause was the wasteful cultivation methods practiced by the planters. The tobacco industry produced tobacco which was originally used for pipes and snuff. The tobacco industry seems to have been fairly well established as far west as Spotsylvania, Hanover, and Goochland counties as early as 1730. In the 18th century, Bristol was an important processing centre for the tobacco that was imported from the plantations. Blacks on Tobacco Plantation, Jamaica ... Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. The tobacco leaves were then stripped from the stems and packed into hogsheads (round, wooden casks or barrels) used to hold tobacco for shipment. Interesting Facts and information  the Plantations of Colonial America, Fast Facts and info about Plantations in the Southern colonies, The Plantations is great resource for kids, Social Studies Homework help for kids on Plantations, Plantations - Tobacco Plantations - Tobacco Plantations - Sugar Plantations - Cotton Plantations - Indigo Plantations - Rice Plantations - Slave Plantations - Facts - Colonists - Plantations - Economy of Plantations - Overseers on Plantations - Fast - Information - Plantations - Info - Southern Plantations - Kids - Children - Studies - Plantations - Social Studies Teaching resource - Social Studies - History - Teachers - Plantations - Facts - Fast - Information - Plantations - Info - Kids - Children - Studies - Social Studies Teaching resource - Social Studies - History - Teachers - Tobacco Plantations - Sugar Plantations - Cotton Plantations - Indigo Plantations - Rice Plantations - Slave Plantations - Plantations, Dirt walls, called 'banks', had to be constructed to keep salt water out, Ditches and gates had to be built to move fresh water in, 50 acres of rice fields sometimes required 5,000 feet of ditches. Records of the Malone Methodist Episcopal Church at Madison MD, 1883-1893, 1885-1977 Baptism and Marriage Records, Bethlehem Methodist Episcopal Church, Dorchester County, Maryland. By the 1690's and rice became the mainstay of the colonies of Georgia and South Carolina. This is a list of plantations and/or plantation houses in the United States of America that are national memorials, National Historic Landmarks, listed on the National Register of Historic Places or other heritage register, or are otherwise significant for their history, association with significant events or people, or their architecture and design. The three provinces with the largest incidence of child labourers in agricultural sector are North Sumatra (155,196 children), Central Java (204,406) and East Java (224,075). The rice fields were flooded at certain times of the year, and then drained back out. To keep up with the demand, a number of farmers in Virginia took to planting tobacco as a cash crop. Plantation View. Unlike many crops, tobacco was a good traveler, and, barring leakage of the ship or bursting of the hogsheads, would usually arrive … At the beginning of the eighteenth century the average product of one man was from 1,500 to 2,000 pounds or in terms of acreage, from one and a half to two acres, plus six or seven barrels of corn. The Plantation owner (the planter), the Overseer and the slaves. PlantationsWhat were plantations? It was popular in Europe where tobacco-smoking and snuff-taking had become fashionable. Just before the end of the seventeenth century the tobacco industry had expanded into the lowlands all along the Rappahannock and Potomac rivers below the Fall Line. Rows of furrows about 1ft wide were dug to plant the sugar canes, Seeds were planted by hand at one-yard intervals, Before canes are harvested the sugar fields were burnt to remove leaves and weeds, During sugar harvesting the cane was cut at the lower stem, leaving the rest to produce more crops, Sugar cane crops could be cut and produced up to 4 times without having to be replanted. Rice PlantationsRice was a particularly difficult crop to cultivate but  the owners of the slave plantations in the Southern colonies mastered its culture by following the example of rice cultivation in Africa with information provided by their African slaves. The tidal creeks and rivers afforded a safe and convenient means of communication while the country was thickly forested and infested with unfriendly Indians. However, it is generally agreed that tobacco was not abandoned extensively in Tidewater before the Revolution. Scene on an American tobacco plantation. Tobacco Plantations Tobacco was the first plantation crop raised by the Southern colonies. By settling on the peninsulas, formed by the tidal creeks and rivers, it was easier to protect the early settlements once the Indians had been driven out. This practice was begun on a relatively large scale as early as 1632 when a planting restriction of 1,500 plants per person was enacted, causing many planters to leave their estates in search of better land in an effort to increase the quality of their tobacco. Before the 17th century, the only people in Virginia who were planting and harvesting tobacco were the Native Americans. By 1617 the value of tobacco was well known in every settlement or plantation in Virginia–Bermuda, Dale’s Gift, Henrico, Jamestown, Kecoughtan, and West and Shirley Hundreds–each under a commander. For those plantations more attuned to the business of selling slaves to optimize profits, they typically sold the children when they were between 8–10 and able to perform a daily workload. The process of growing tobacco required all year attention. It is generally agreed that the commercial production of tobacco began to expand beyond the Fall Line about 1720. Tobacco and cigar exportation and its contribution to the national economy. view of tobacco plantation in south america – kaufen Sie dieses Foto und finden Sie ähnliche Bilder auf Adobe Stock The English encouraged the American colonists to produce indigo as it was highly dependent on Spain and France for this dye, so the indigo plantations flourished. The number of slaves in the colonial period increased from 10,000 in the 1600's to 400,000 in the 1700's. Tobacco was harvested in the late summer and then had to be dried “cured” in a tobacco house for six weeks. Shirley Plantation is a premier example of a Virginia tobacco plantation. Refer to Trade in the Colonies for additional information about each of the colonies. The plantation slaves lived in basic, crude wooden cabins consisting of one or two rooms, often with a dirt floor, in the slave quarters. a. the plantation owners could use their slaves to defend their property from european powers. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Free Genealogy » Virginia » The Tobacco Plantation: From Jamestown To The Blue Ridge. After the initial outlay required to purchase a slave, little expenditure was required and with the successive generations of slaves born on the slave plantations their masters gained new employees at no cost. Specialized production of plantation staples depended upon overseas markets for the sale of the crops, while capital, technology, consumer goods, and labor were imported from abroad. The five Southern Colonies who introduced the system of plantations were composed of the Maryland Colony, Virginia Colony, North Carolina Colony, South Carolina Colony and the Georgia Colony. A variant of the indigo plant is native to South Carolina and Georgia. Sugarcane is a tropical, grass that forms shoots at the base producing multiple stems. Tobacco slaves worked at tasks (often alongside freemen) as did slaves in back-breaking rice cultivation. The English and European colonists during the Colonial period had no practical experience of rice crops and the production of rice required its workers on the rice plantations to possess knowledge of the land and how to cultivate. At first, tobacco plantations in the “tobacco colonies”, of which Virginia was the most notable, simply harvested the plants and then covered them with hay to prepare them in a … Both companies made steep cuts at production facilities throughout the 1990s. By 1750, some 145,000 enslaved Africans worked in the region. Learn how your comment data is processed. Overseers were men hired by the owners to manage and direct the work of slaves. Tobacco was the most important cash crop but the volatility of tobacco prices encouraged the planters to diversify and different types of slave plantations were established. Population Growth of Europeans and AfricansThe population of the 13 colonies (European and African) increased dramatically in a relatively short number of years as can be seen by the following population chart. Each of the three districts exported about 83,000 hogsheads of tobacco, while the Lower James River district exported only about 10,000. From A Pomet A Compleat History of Drugs London 1725. Cotton Plantation in the Southern Colonies. The production of the Piloto Cubano variety, introduced in the country at the beginning of the 1960s, and the fact that we have been able to produce a leaf with the same quality as the Cuban tobacco from which it originated, helped to give life to Dominican tobacco. The first man to successfully cultivate tobacco in the States was John Rolfe in 1612. All during the seventeenth century expansion tended to extend in a northerly direction within the Tidewater region, but in the eighteenth century the movement was to the west in search of virgin soil. The production of tobacco per acre does not appear to have changed very much in the long period from about 1650 to 1800, when 1,000 pounds per acre was considered a good yield. The owners lived in colonial mansions, the overseers in small houses and the slave lived in very basic wooden cabins in the slave quarters. The rise in demand for foodstuffs during the war caused planters to shift from tobacco in increasing numbers. The first Southern plantations were worked by Indentured servants the massive sizes of the plantations needed more and more labor. Required fields are marked *. The following chart provides facts and stats about exports in the 1770's showing the annual average values for the Top 10 commodity exports in the Southern Colonies - also refer to Colonial Times. During the Civil War, they were distinct from other cash crops in terms of agricultural demands, trade, slave labor, and plantation culture. Your email address will not be published. Drinking Smoke. Cuba, Unknown maker, American, Edward Anthony (American, 1818 - 1888), about 1860, Albumen silver print, Reimagined by Gibon, design of warm cheerful glowing of brightness and light rays radiance. Many influential American revolutionaries, including Thomas Jefferson and George Washington, owned tobacco plantations, and were financially devastated by debt to British tobacco merchants shortly before the American Revolution. Sugar is best grown on relatively flat, fertile land. There they fermented until it was time to drain the liquid and complete the process. Slaves were responsible for the ploughing, sowing and harvesting of the crop and were punished if they did not work hard enough. This boldness was shortlived, for the Indian Massacre of 1622 tended to narrow the area under cultivation for that year. Cane sugar was grown on the sugar plantations. Another product of sugar cane is molasses were was used to produce rum - a major trade export of the Northern colonies. Tobacco plantation in America, – kaufen Sie dieses Foto und finden Sie ähnliche Bilder auf Adobe Stock The early sugar plantations had an extensive use of slaves because sugar was considered as a cash crop exhibiting economies of scale in its cultivation. By 1635 tobacco had almost disappeared in the immediate vicinity of Jamestown, as many of the planters moved to new land along the south bank of the York River. Tobacco farming is a lucrative business in China since it employs just about 17 million individuals. The first appreciable decline came during the Revolution and this trend continued until the tobacco was almost completely abandoned in Tidewater in the nineteenth century. Indigo was not grown on colonial plantations until an enterprising woman called Eliza Lucas Pinckney (1722–1793) developed the indigo plants as an additional cash crop for the Southern slave plantations. Then came the settlements along the York and its tributaries, the Mattapony and the Pamunkey; and finally, along the banks of the Rappahannock and the Potomac. ... By the start of the American Revolution in 1775, the Virginia General Assembly voted to stop tobacco export to Europe. Slave plantations in the United States existed from the time of the 17th century until the 19th century. By 1800 Piedmont Virginia had definitely become the major tobacco producing area. The slaves on the sugar plantations, including men, women, and children, had to endure the backbreaking work of planting rows upon rows of sugar cane seeds. From Jamestown, settlements gradually spread up and down both banks of the James and its tributaries, the Elizabeth, Nansemond, Appomattox, and the Chickahominy. The cultivation and processing of the indigo dye produced one-third the total value of the exports from the Southern slave plantations before the Revolutionary War. Cane sugar was first imported to the 13 colonies from British West Indies. Just prior to the American Revolution the tobacco industry began to expand rapidly south of the James River, especially to the south and west of Petersburg. Additionally, the government under China National Tobacco Corporation (CNTC) manufactures tobacco products which accounts for approximately a third of global consumption. As an Amazon Associate, I earn from qualifying purchases. However, after the US purchased the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803, the plantation owners followed the French lead and also began growing sugar cane on their plantations. It also often requires working long hours as well as the use of heavy and dangerous machinery and tools that violat… The cotton industry and the number of cotton plantations boomed in the Southern colonies with the introduction of the cotton gin. Thus it appears that during most of the Colonial period one man could cultivate one and a half to two acres of tobacco, plus provisions; but by the end of this period he had increased the productiveness of his own labor. Vast areas of land had to be cleared for planting and crops had to be sewn and harvested by hand. The rice was flailed then harvested and then the rice was removed from the hulls in a winnowing basket. In 1689 the York River area produced the largest quantity of tobacco, the Rappahannock River area was second, the Upper James third, and the Accomac Peninsula last. First edition French. Slave Plantations were established in the Americas. The expansion into the interior did not take place until the Tidewater area had become fairly well settled. As legal property of their masters they had no rights themselves and fared far worse than Roman slaves or medieval serfs. Southern Plantations were labor intensive and required thousands of slaves. Much of the tobacco smoked in England was grown in the West Indies. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. The construction of sugar cane fields to create the sugar plantations was an arduous task. The indigo crop was successfully cultivated in Louisiana, and factories were built for the manufacture of dye. They settled near what is now Warrenton and began producing tobacco of excellent quality, which soon came to be known as “Edmonium Tobacco.” Ten years later large quantities were being produced in Albemarle (including present Nelson and Amherst counties), Cumberland, Augusta, and Culpeper counties. Definition of Plantations: Plantations can be defined as large farms in the colonies that used the enforced labor of slaves to harvest cotton, rice, sugar, tobacco and other farm produce for trade and export. It was estimated that 20,000 hogsheads were being produced annually in that region alone. The articles on Triangular Trade, Colonialism and Mercantilism are also highly relevant to the subject of plantations. Gauging on revenues, CNTC is the largest company in the world that deal … As early as 1759 all of the best lands in Virginia were reported to have been taken, and by the time of the Revolution the supply was said to have been completely exhausted. The country is the leading consumer of tobacco related products in the world. In the following year Robert Carter had hundreds of additional acres surveyed, in what is now Prince William County, as he extended his holdings above the Fall Line. Kitchen of a Barracoon, with group of slaves. In 1616 the tobacco fever struck furiously in Jamestown. A considerable amount of tobacco was also being grown in the lower region of the Valley of Virginia. A cotton plant formed bolls containing seeds with many long hairy fibers. Indigo PlantationsIndigo was the highly prized source of blue dye. Plantations - Cash CropsTobacco, rice, cotton, sugar cane and indigo were valuable plants and grown as cash crops. The slaves had to act as scarecrows to keep the birds away from the rice crops. For the next thirty years there was a gradual expansion to the north and west along the banks of the James, York, and the Rappahannock rivers and their tributaries. In 1629 there were from 4,000 to 5,000 English settlers, confined almost exclusively to the James River valley and to the Accomac Peninsula, where they cultivated about 2,000 acres of tobacco. Born and raised in England, he saw a opportunity to undercut Spanish tobacco imports by growing it in England's new colony: Virginia. Tobacco was introduced to Europe by the Spanish, who had learned to smoke it from Native Americans. The cultivation of tobacco soon spread from John Rolfe’s garden to every available plot of ground within the fortified districts in Jamestown. In 1611 Rolfe, known as "an ardent smoker," decided to experiment with cultivating tobacco in Jamestown.The plant had first been brought to England in 1565, perhaps from Florida by Sir John Hawkins, and by the 1610s there was a ready market in Britain for tobacco—especially Spanish tobacco from the West Indies. In contrast to sugar, European settlers could make a profit growing tobacco with smaller slaveholdings and less labor exertion. Sugarcane usually grows three to four meters high and is about five centimetres in diameter. Large-scale cultivation of cotton using slave labor was extremely profitable for the owners of the cotton plantations in the Colonial period of American history. Many of them only reduced their tobacco crop at first, but later abandoned it completely. These figures put into perspective the importance of the slave plantations in the Southern colonies. The tobacco industry produced tobacco which was originally used for pipes and snuff. During the six-year period 1750-1755, tobacco production appears to have been centered equally in three areas: the Upper James River district, the York River district, and the Rappahannock River district. Of the four plants of the Americas that spread to the rest of the world in the Columbian Exchange—potato, maize, tomato, and tobacco—the last is the only one used in every country. In the South the nature of the crop usually determines the number of acres that one person can cultivate successfully. Cotton is not included in the above chart because cotton was not grown on Southern plantations until 1793 when Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin which made the production of cotton more profitable. American settlers soon found tobacco to be a profitable export crop. Robert Carter of Nomini Hall patented over 900 acres of land above the Falls in 1707. The first years of sugar cane harvesting in Louisiana produced 300,000 tons of sugar per year so it was a profitable crop for the slave plantations of the southern colonies. Work on the tobacco plantations required slaves. The construction of rice fields to create the rice plantations was an arduous task. The women were compelled to do as much as the men The use of slaves kept the costs down on the plantations. The Tobacco Plantation: From Jamestown To The Blue Ridge. Slave plantations included the rice plantations, cotton plantations and indigo plantations. Seeds were first grown in flats and then the seedlings were planted by laborious hoeing in the fields. Sugar PlantationsCane sugar was first imported to the 13 Southern colonies from the West Indies. Tobacco broke down the fields and made food crops more productive. African slaves working on a Southern tobacco plantation in 1670 during Colonial Times. Tobacco Plantations. While the production of tobacco continued to expand north and west, it made little headway in the sandy counties of Princess Anne and Norfolk. Virginia remained the leading producer of tobacco in the United States until the War Between the States, when she was replaced by Kentucky, owing to the devastating effects of the war in the Old Dominion. Tobacco was still grown in Tidewater Virginia and some beyond the western boundary of the Piedmont, but by this time Tidewater had ceased to be the “tobacco country” of previous years. By the late 1630’s, attempts to reduce the amount of tobacco grown in the colony, by limiting the number of plants each person could plant, had caused many planters to leave their plantations in search of virgin soil in which more tobacco per plant could be grown. Governor Dale allowed its culture to be gradually extended until it absorbed the whole attention at West and Shirley Hundreds and Jamestown. Plantations: tobacco, rice, sugar cane and cotton The agriculture system of plantations was implemented in the Southern Colonies during Colonial Times. Plantation produ… However, after the United States purchased the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803, slave plantation owners also began growing sugar cane in addition to indigo on their plantations. For the first twenty years after the landing at Jamestown, the settlers restricted themselves to the valley of the James and to the Accomac Peninsula. At this time there were settlements in the following eight counties: Henrico, located on both sides of the James River, between Arrahattock and Shirley Hundred; Charles City, also located on both sides of the James from Shirley Hundred Island to Weyanoke; James City, on both sides of the James from Chippoakes to Lawnes Creek, and from the Chickahominy River on the north side to a point nearly opposite the mouth of Lawnes Creek; Warrasquoke (Isle of Wight), contained the area from the southern limit of James City to the Warrasquoke River; Warwick and Elizabeth City, the rest of the remaining settlements on the James River; Charles River (York), all of the plantations on the south bank of the York River; and finally Accomac. The cotton gin  was a machine that separated the cotton fibers from the seed ten times faster that the slaves could do by hand. As cheap virgin soil became scarce, planters left their lands in Tidewater to take up fresh acreage in the Piedmont, or they stayed at home and grew grain, some corn but mostly wheat. We can only generalize as to when and how extensive this substitution of wheat for tobacco may have been. Cheap labor was essential for the slave plantations to become profitable. Tobacco Pipe. Once tobacco became popular and profitable, everyone wanted to plant it. However, the amount that one man could produce increased during this period as the planters became more experienced and the plow and other implements came to be used more extensively. The production of tobacco continued to increase in the Piedmont and decrease in Tidewater, and Piedmont Virginia became more firmly established as Virginia’s tobacco belt. This was not true of sugar. 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