This requires setting of goals and regular appraisal of progress for both managerial and technical ability. The school science laboratory: Considerations of learning, technology, and scientific practice “To many students, a ‘lab’ means manipulating equipment but not manipulating ideas.” — Lunetta, 1998, p. 250 “[Students] encounter simulacra of the subjects and objects of science: science teacher in place of working scientists and The following is the hierarchy of the clinical laboratory staff from highest authority to lowest: 1. If maintenance and consumable costs are included in the same agreement, it may be possible to negotiate a reduction in charge for the consumables, but it is important to neither underestimate nor overestimate the annual requirements that will be included in the contract. Graph shows curves relating true-positive rates (sensitivity) to false-positive rates (1 − specificity) for two tests A and B making the same measurements. central forensic science laboratory, bhopal केंद्रीय न्यायालयिक विज्ञान प्रयोगशाला, भोपाल Directorate of Forensic Science Services, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India Haemoglobin concentration, platelet count and activated partial thromboplastin time have been included in this category. Key performance indicators to assess laboratory operations. He attended St. Thomas’s Anglican Primary School, Akure between 1974 and 1980. Under this executive, there should be a number of designated individuals responsible for implementing the functions of the department (Table 24.1). THUSHARA T.R NATURAL SCIENCE 2. Purchasing expensive equipment outright adds to the capital assets of the laboratory, with the consequential cost of depreciation (usually 8–10% per annum). To evaluate the diagnostic reliability and predictive value of an individual laboratory test, it is necessary to calculate test sensitivity and specificity. Science technicians play a vital role in the provision of high-quality science teaching in schools, from looking after laboratory equipment to helping pupils achieve their potential with one-to-one support. Scientists consider how their work should be organized, which could be based on themes, teams, projects or fields of expertise. The Office manages the SC Science Laboratories Infrastructure program and projects, the SC Safeguards and Security program and projects, and represe… When services are centralized, attention must be paid to all phases (pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical) of the test process, including the need for packaging the specimens and the cost of their transport to the laboratory.6, The reliability of a quantitative test is defined in terms of the uncertainty of measurement of the analyte (sometimes referred to in documents as ‘measurand’). Volume 43, Issue 6, November 1990, Pages 641-644. extent of errors caused by interfering substances), Throughput time and number of specimens that can be processed within a normal working day, Reliability of the instrument when in routine use and adequacy of service and maintenance provided, Cost per test, including operating time, reagents, daily start-up procedure and regular (usually weekly) maintenance procedures, Staff acceptability, impact on laboratory organization and level of technical expertise required to operate the instrument, Any relevant authority label, e.g. Test specimens should be measured alternately, or in batches, by the two procedures. INTRODUCTION The social science laboratory should be planned and organized in such a way not only for the purpose of furnishing motives and objectives to the social sciences. Peer argumentation in the school science laboratory-Exploring effects of task features. CrossRef Google Scholar. It can be calculated as follows: An alternative method is that of Youden, which is obtained by calculating Specificity/(1 − Sensitivity). The appraiser should provide a short list of topics to the person to be interviewed, who should be encouraged to add to the list, so that each understands the items to be covered. Some of the other factors listed in Table 24.3 can be quantified to calculate the combined uncertainty of measurement. Verification of instrument requirements for space and services, Extent of technical training required to operate the instrument, Clarity and usefulness of instruction manual, Assessment of safety (mechanical, electrical, microbiological and chemical), Extent of inaccuracy by comparison with measurement by definitive or reference methods, Comparability with an established method used in the laboratory, Performance when used in an external quality control scheme, Sensitivity (i.e. For assessing cost-effectiveness of a particular test, account must be taken of (1) cost per test as compared with other tests that provide similar clinical information; (2) diagnostic reliability; and (3) clinical usefulness as assessed by the extent with which the test is relied on in clinical decisions, whether the results are likely to change the physician’s diagnostic opinion and the clinical management of the patient, taking account of disease prevalence and a specified clinical or public health situation. The degree of precision that is acceptable depends on the purpose of the test (. Prepare a specimen with a high concentration of the analyte to be tested and, as accurately as possible, make a series of dilutions in plasma so as to obtain 10 samples with evenly spaced concentration levels between 10% and 100%. Table 24.4 Test precision for different purposes. What’s involved. 100% on vertical axis), with no false positives (i.e. Assessment of the clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of equipment to match the nature and volume of laboratory workload is a very important exercise. Correlation coefficient is a measure of relation and not agreement. Laboratories should maintain accurate records of workload, overall costs and the cost per test in order to apportion resources to each section. To evaluate the diagnostic reliability and predictive value of an individual laboratory test, it is necessary to calculate test sensitivity and specificity.11 Sensitivity is the fraction of true positive results when a test is applied to patients known to have the relevant disease or when results have been obtained by a reference method. Test specimens should be measured alternately, or in batches, by the two procedures. In that role, they should be fully conversant with the principles of laboratory practice, especially with interpretation and clinical significance of the various analytical procedures, so as to provide a reliable and authoritative link between laboratory and clinic. European Plant Science Organisation official website. The appraisal process should cascade down from the head of department and appropriate training must be given to those who undertake appraisals at successive levels. 2. Although primary investigators or lab managers are generally responsible for … Performance appraisal can have lasting value in the personal development of individuals, but the process can easily be mishandled and should not be started without training in how to hold an appraisal interview.2, Continuing professional development is a process of continuous systematic learning which enables health workers to be constantly brought up to date on developments in their professional work and thus ensure their competence to practice throughout their professional careers. The t-test is used to assess the likelihood of significant difference at various levels of probability by comparing the means or individually paired results. With a positive ratio rising above zero towards +1 there is an increasing probability that the test will discriminate the presence of the specified disease and there is decreasing likelihood that the test is valid when the ratio falls from 0 to −1. It is important for the laboratory to be aware of the limits of accuracy that it achieves in its routine performance each day as well as day-to-day.10 Clinicians should be made aware of the level of uncertainty of results for any test and the potential effect of this on their diagnosis and interpretation of response to treatment (see below). Planning of these objectives should involve all staff because this will heighten awareness of the issues and will develop personal concern in the strategy. It is important that the provider and the consumer (i.e. Together, the 17 DOE laboratories comprise a preeminent federal research system, providing the Nation with strategic scientific and technological capabilities. Pathologist Assistant (PA) 6. Corporate information The amount allocated for staff salaries should include the cost of training and should take into account absences for annual leave or sickness. Recent Posts. The Office of Science … The laboratory should also be involved in both the pre-analytical stage (i.e. Use Specialized Lab Organization Software or Online Systems There are several online systems designed to help with lab organization and management. At CSIRO, we solve the greatest challenges through innovative science and technology. Download a printable Organization Chart (PDF format). Precision is the closeness of agreement when a test is repeated a number of times. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. It is not usually possible to have both 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. We are committed to child safety and to the implementation of Child Safe principles and procedures. Department Supervisor (an MT) 8. Buy Membership for Hematology, Oncology and Palliative Medicine Category to continue reading. The following aspects are usually included in evaluations: After an instrument has been purchased and installed, it is useful to undertake regular less extensive checks of performance with regard to precision, linearity, carryover and comparability. Specificity is the fraction of true negative results when the test is applied to normals. It is not appropriate to include considerations relating to pay. An appraisal interview should be a constructive dialogue of the present state of development and the progress made to date; it should be open-ended and should identify future training requirements. In practice, the results should lie within 2SD limits of the means calculated from the CVs, which have been obtained from analysis of precision (see earlier). Download a presentation slide of the Organization Chart (PowerPoint). The procedure is based on obtaining ‘credits’ for various activities that qualify, such as: attendance at specified lectures, workshops and conferences; giving lectures; writing books or journal articles; using computer or journal-based programmes; and taking part in peer review discussions. All members of staff should receive training to enhance their skills and to develop their careers. This requires setting of goals and regular appraisal of progress for both managerial and technical ability. The head of department is responsible for departmental leadership, for ensuring that the laboratory has authoritative representation within the hospital and for ensuring that managerial and administrative tasks are performed efficiently. GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICES Presented By:- Krushna Yadav.D.K 12MTFTFS006 2. Indirect costs may be apportioned to different sections of a department who share common overhead costs. Accuracy is the closeness of agreement between the measurement that is obtained and the true value; the extent of discrepancy is the systematic error or bias. In turn, the head of department may be managerially accountable to a clinical director (of laboratories) and thence to a hospital or health authority executive committee. Good Laboratory Practices ppt 1. Furthermore, all medical staff, especially junior hospital doctors, should be invited to visit the laboratory, to see how it functions, how various tests are performed, their level of complexity, clinical utility and cost: this should give them confidence to order tests rationally, rather than automatically requesting all the tests listed on the laboratory request form.1. Review of price setting on the basis of workload and calculated cost per test. determination of the smallest change in analyte concentration that gives a measured result), Specificity (i.e. Documentation of formal interviews can be limited to a short list of agreed objectives. If financial savings become necessary, they can be achieved in a variety of ways, but large savings usually necessitate a reduction in staff because employment costs can account for three-quarters of total expenditure. As an organisation regulated by public law, we are independent: not part of any government, university or company. Therefore biology lab should have comprehensive range of latest lab … Laboratory design and services A science laboratory, in addition to being designed and constructed in such a way as to allow the efficient conduct of practical work, should be designed with a view to preventing accidents. The reliability of a quantitative test is defined in terms of the, It may be necessary to decide by statistical analysis whether two sets of data differ significantly. Science is a practical subject, teaching of which cannot be done properly only in theory form. A = Laboratory administration, including salaries of clerical and other non-technical staff. The ratio of positive results in disease to the frequency of false-positive results in healthy individuals gives a statistical measure of the discrimination by the test between disease and normality. In assessing workload, account must be taken of the entire cycle from test receipt to issue of a report, whether the test is by a manual or semi-automated method or by a high-volume multiple-analyte automated analyser. Policies and programmes have been established in a number of countries and, in some, participation is a mandatory requirement for the right to practice. It is the team work and coordination for these three pillars that brings smooth functioning of justice system which ultimately results in the resolution of cases and dispensation of justice. Whether sensitivity or specificity is more important depends on the particular purpose of the test. Prior to planning an organisational approach for the laboratory it is useful to define what is leant by a pathology service and «hat the objectives of that service should be. Apportioning of resources should also take account of the roles of biomedical scientists/senior technologists and junior technicians, supervised laboratory assistants, clerical staff and medical personnel responsible for reviewing the report. ), Analyser calibration uncertain (no reference standard available), Bias in instrument, equipment or glassware, Faults in the measuring steps (e.g. For proper education of science, it is necessary to conduct various kinds of experimental … Clin Lab … To ensure reliability of the laboratory service, tests with no proven value should be eliminated and new tests should be introduced only when there is independent evidence of technical reliability as well as cost-effectiveness. APHC Home / Organization / Laboratory Sciences Introduction Laboratory Sciences provides responsive, comprehensive laboratory science services worldwide as part of the occupational and environmental … Pathologist (an MD or PhD) 3. It is then the … No place on Earth pursues a broader array of world-class scientific … Master of Science in MLS Mission Statement. Where the head of the department delegates managerial tasks to others, these responsibilities must be clearly defined and stated. D2 Communicating information in a scientific organisation For assessing cost-effectiveness of a particular test, account must be taken of (1) cost per test as compared with other tests that provide similar clinical information; (2) diagnostic reliability; and (3) clinical usefulness as assessed by the extent with which the test is relied on in clinical decisions, whether the results are likely to change the physician’s diagnostic opinion and the clinical management of the patient, taking account of disease prevalence and a specified clinical or public health situation. Particular attention is paid to the development of schedules for ensuring that all S1 students perform a balanced set of experiments, as far as possible individually and inter‐linked with the relevant theory. Contact Us Documentation of formal interviews can be limited to a short list of agreed objectives. Benchmarking with the best. preparing reports, transmission of results and maintaining a data file). Forensic Science Laboratory Mizoram Justice Delivery System has three equally important fundamental pillars viz. It may be necessary to decide by statistical analysis whether two sets of data differ significantly. Carry out appropriate measurements 10 times consecutively on three or more specimens selected in the pathological range so as to include a low, a high and a middle range concentration of the analyte. If the scatter of differences increases at high values, logarithmic transformed data should be plotted. Resident in Pathology (an MD or PhD) 4. Calculate the replicate SD and CV as shown on p. 625. ORGANISATION OF SCIENCE LABORATORY Headmaster Senior Assistant Senior Science Continuing professional development is a process of continuous systematic learning which enables health workers to be constantly brought up to date on developments in their professional work and thus ensure their competence to practice throughout their professional careers. The standard uncertainty is then calculated from the sum of the quantified uncertainties as follows: Expanded uncertainty of measurement takes account of non-quantifiable items by multiplying the previous amount by a ‘coverage factor’ (k), which is usually taken to be ×2 for 95% level of confidence.7,8. American Associatio n for the Advancemen t of Science (AAAS) is an internatio nal non-profit organizati on dedicated to advancing science. … This occupation is found in a wide range of organisations, including but not exclusively, chemical, primary and secondary pharmaceutical, biotechnology, formulated products, nuclear companies; and analytical science services, dental laboratories and educational establishments. Expansion of a major clinical service, such as organ transplantation, or the opportunity to compete for the laboratory service of other hospitals and clinics, may pose an external opportunity, but may also be a threat to the laboratory, depending on its ability to respond to the consequential increase in workload. Where the head of the department delegates managerial tasks to others, these responsibilities must be clearly defined and stated. In the illustrated case Test A is more reliable than Test B for both circumstances. Policies and programmes have been established in a number of countries and, in some, participation is a mandatory requirement for the right to practice.3. Benchmarking with the best. Computer spreadsheets provide an easily comprehended view of the financial state and the likely responses in the running of the laboratory. The higher the ratio, the greater is the probability of disease, whereas a ratio <1 makes the possibility of the disease being correctly diagnosed by the test much less likely. It is better to use the limits of agreement method.12 For this, plot the differences between paired results on the vertical axis of linear graph paper against the means of the pairs on the horizontal axis (Fig. In general, staff cost is by far the largest component of the total costs of running a laboratory. Furthermore, many of the other costs are obligations outside the direct control of the laboratory. Receiver–Operator Characteristic Analysis. Management of the laboratory requires an executive committee answerable to the head of department. The management structure of a haematology laboratory should indicate a clear line of accountability of each member of staff to the head of department. Imprecision is the result of random errors; it is expressed as standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (CV%). Guidelines for evaluation of blood cell analysers and other haematology instruments have been published by the International Council for Standardization in Haematology.16 In the UK, appraisal of various items of laboratory equipment was formerly undertaken by selected laboratories at the request of the Department of Health’s Medical Devices Agency, subsequently renamed Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) and now replaced by the Centre for Evidence-based Purchasing (CEP). This may require rationalization by eliminating unused laboratory capacity, avoiding unnecessary tests and ensuring more efficient use of skilled staff and expensive equipment. The F-ratio is useful to assess the influence of random errors in two sets of test results (see Appendix, p. 625). for overnight and weekend emergency service or for the phlebotomy service) and sharing of emergency service between local hospitals. This may require rationalization by eliminating unused laboratory capacity, avoiding unnecessary tests organisation of science laboratory more. Test a is more important depends on science and technology to establish an organizational in. Establish an organizational system in the lab… National security depends on the purpose of the department delegates managerial tasks others... For Standardization in haematology ( www.BCSHGuidelines.com ) and life science areas of department ) 4 values that... 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