She overlooks the signs of his violence: his rifle, his flashing wet teeth, the dead birds he’s carrying. Angela Carter is one of my favourite authors, and The Bloody Chamber is a vibrant collection of stories which still cause controversy due to their explicit content and rebelliousness. Amazon.com. In my previous post about ‘Little Red Riding Hood,’ I looked at versions of the tale by Charles Perrault and the Grimm Brothers and how it was used as a tale of warning. We are in a ‘Northern country’ of ‘cold weather’ and ‘wild beasts in the forest’. The little girl is a version of the well-known fairy-tale character Little Red Riding Hood. 'Wolf-Alice' celebrates nature’s innocence, earthiness and tenderness. Survival, if not peace, is maintained through mutual preying and destruction: the Little Red Riding Hood-like character of the young protagonist who walks through the forest to visit her grandmother is the daughter of a hunter. Moreover, the tale of ‘Little Red Riding Hood’ has been seen to undergo adaptation in relation to society of the time. Angela Carter is one of my favourite authors, and. You may not reuse the material for commercial purposes. Like her father, she knows how to use a knife and, like all the town’s inhabitants, is on guard both against animal predators like wolves but also against naked men who are feared not because they might be sexual attackers but because they are werewolves. The story presents an image of a young woman who rewrites her entrapment and sexual assault as a glorious rite in which she ‘never flinched’. Carter’s masterpiece of fiction closes with a celebration of sensuality, tenderness and warmth which comes from the innocent natural world, far from the perverse eroticism, gender politics and scheming sexual power-plays of humans. He tricks his way into the grandmother’s house by pretending to be the granddaughter, murders her, then tricks the girl into coming in by pretending to be the grandmother. This is furthered by her undressing the wolf-man. Her stay there is a ‘mutilation’ of her real nature – a wounding of it. Analysis: In “The Werewolf”, a short-story remix of the classic folk-tale Little Red Riding Hood, there is a newfound bolden emphasis upon the dark and mystical elements. She discovers vanity when she puts on the white dress of a young bride the Duke has devoured and notices that she ‘shines’ in it. Satan Wolf Movie Angela Carter The Neon Demon Dark And Twisted Thing 1 Red Riding Hood Horror Movies Horror Film The Company Of Wolves (1984) Director: Neil Jordan Starring: Sarah Patterson, Angela Lansbury, Micha Bergese, David Warner "Never stray from the path, never eat a windfall apple and never trust a man whose eyebrows meet in the middle." The most important characters in “The Werewolf” by Angela Carter are the little girl, her grandmother, and the collective character of the community living in the northern territory. This is not a world in which natural justice prevails but one in which whoever is left standing is the winner. It retells the anecdote of “Little Red Riding Hood.”. Like an animal, his skin is described as a ‘pelt’, and like a werewolf he responds to the full moon as if it compels him: a ray of moonlight is like ‘an imperative finger’ from a ‘governess’. Like in ‘The Werewolf,’ the grandmother’s death is symbolic of the girl moving out of childhood, where she is watched over by her elders, and becoming her own person. This story contains another active protagonist, although of a different kind to the one seen in ‘The Werewolf.’ This girl’s power comes from seduction. She also falls for his trick – a wager that he can get to her grandmother’s house first, and if she loses she has to kiss him – because she wants to lose to him and have a kiss. Edited extracts from Leonie Orton’s memoir, Feminist literature: puncturing the spectacle, Close readings of John Agard's ‘Checking Out Me History’, ‘Flag’ and ‘Half Caste’, The 1950s: English literature’s angry decade, Bertolt Brecht and epic theatre: V is for, 'Knock, knock, it’s Enoch': Hanif Kureishi remembers the effect of Enoch Powell, An introduction to Katherine Mansfield's short stories, Manuscript notes and drafts of stories from, Angela Carter's manuscript notes on fairy tale material, Manuscript drafts of 'Alison's giggle' and an article on Edgar Allan Poe by Angela Carter, ‘The Alchemy of the Word’ and ‘Notes on the Gothic Mode’ by Angela Carter, Galleries, Reading Rooms, shop and catering opening times vary. The Bloody Chamber by Angela Carter. "Little Red Riding Hood" is a European fairy tale about a young girl and a Big Bad Wolf. In both cases, the encounter symbolizes the loss of the girl's virginity. Or is she? In this article, Carter stated that her intention ‘was not to do ‘versions’ or, as the American edition of the book said, horribly, ‘adult’ fairy tales, but to extract the latent content from the traditional stories and to use it as the beginnings of new stories.’ With this is mind, when reading her two stories inspired by Little Red Riding Hood it is clear that she took some very specific content from this tale. However, in more modern retellings, different aspects of the story become apparent. October 15, 2020 7:54 AM EDT ... You know the ones—Little Red Riding Hood, Sleeping Beauty, Rapunzel and … The Duke is not a love interest, a tormentor, a counterpart or a nemesis. Instead of a tale of warning, she has made it into a tale of transformation. / christiandurham. Left to her own devices in the castle, Alice learns about time through matching her menstrual cycle to the moon’s cycle; from the mirror she becomes self-conscious and individualistic; she becomes the centre of her own narrative and sees herself standing out from nature rather than merging with it. When the young woman sees a ‘tuft of white hair’ belonging to her murdered grandmother she realises that ‘she was in danger of death’. Alice is parcelled off to a duke’s castle, where she is used as a servant, yet here Carter eschews the sexual chemistry and predictably genre-faithful sado-masochistic emotional pull of previous stories. For example, Carter’s concluding moral for ‘Little Red Riding Hood’ reflects 20th-century concerns about the dangers that threaten children: Now, there are real wolves, with hairy pelts and enormous teeth; but also wolves who seem perfectly charming, sweet-natured and obliging, who pursue young girls in the street and pay them the most flattering attentions. Angela Carter’s anthology of short stories based on fairy tales, The Bloody Chamber, was published in 1979 and caused great controversy around the topic of feminism. As she does so, the Duke’s reflection slowly appears in the mirror. The girl is on her way to visit her grandmother, but meets a man in the woods. Its central character is simple but not stupid, and the narrative tone is one of terrible bathos and sympathy for this human foundling who, not being a wolf herself and not having been socialised around humans, is mute, with no language of her own. Usage terms © Displayed with the permission of the Estate of Angela Carter c/o Rogers, Coleridge & White Ltd., 20 Powis Mews, London W11 1JN. Of course he does, and when she enters the house she shows no fear or grief over her dead grandmother. Instead, it compounds local paranoia and misery. Others, like ‘The Lady of the House of Love’ and the last story, ‘Wolf-Alice’, explore vampire, zombie and other occult mythology. The forest is ‘like a pair of jaws’, yet such is her sense of being cared for by a benign world that these jaws do not eat her up but hold her protectively like Jonah inside the whale. Human society is punitive, suspicious and credulous, its puritanical patriarchy shot through with a hypocritical sexualisation: women suspected of being witches are stripped before being stoned to death. I believe that this will continue, and I admire Carter for her imagination and confidence. It is midwinter and the robin, friend of man, sits on the handle of the gardener's spade and sings. Usage terms Charles Perrault: This material is in the Public Domain. Cinderella. https://winnsox.com/journal/article/little-red-riding-hood-and-angela-carter Winter strikes and, like a long Halloween night, produces a bubbling-over of all the delicious horrors of the folkloric population: ‘all the teeming perils of the night…ghosts, hobgoblins, ogres … witches [like the one in Hansel and Gretel] that fatten their captives in cages’. He does not look like a monster and his manner is ‘comic yet flattering’. Angela Carter skilfully and devastatingly presses hard on the disturbing line between fear and submission, choice and force, humiliation and annihilation, self-sacrifice and self-preservation. The next story, ‘The Company of Wolves’, is a macabre, luxuriantly disturbing work recounted in a cheesy B-movie voice-over where every blood-curdling, spine-chilling adjective progressively makes the audience less afraid of the ‘carnivore incarnate’, ‘as cunning as he is ferocious’, who is shortly to stalk the pages like a vaudeville pirate. Alice’s skin is calloused because of her enhanced speed which is ‘not our pace’, she ‘trots or gallops’ on ‘long, lean and muscular limbs’, her nose is long and sensitive – a ‘useful tool’ which makes her enviably competent. As much as the movie is a fairy tale it also is a tale of horror. ‘The Werewolf’ is not a story about werewolves but about human meanness of spirit – the uniquely human appetite for judging others and then collectively enjoying seeing their punishment through to the death. Sarah Patterson as Rosaleen in the film adaptation of The Company of Wolves, 1984. In an echo of the ending of ‘The Tiger’s Bride’, Alice licks the Duke’s face like a dog consoling its master. Despite this minor inconsistency with the other two versions, it is noted that Carter’s version still makes reference to a red piece of clothing which is given to the girl by the grandmother. In these stories, ‘Little Red Riding Hood’ has morphed. In "The Company of Wolves", a young girl beats the most manly of all creatures: the werewolf. Like a ghost he makes animals nervous, and like any predator humans’ doors are ‘barred [to him] for miles’. Literally and socially, Alice has no voice; she is a nobody. The Red Riding Hood character is sent to her grandmother’s house with food as per, only when she encounters the wolf, who tries to kill her instantly, she attacks it with a knife and hacks off one of its paws. When she reaches her grandmother's house, the paw has turned into a hand with the grandmother's ring on it, and the grandmother is … ‘Since her fear did her no good, she ceased to be afraid’ and is then able to behave with the nihilistic bravado of the damned. Carter is challenging readers to accept the change and move on. Sleeping Beauty. […] “The Werewolf” is a short story written by Angela Carter that was published in 1979. February 6, 2017. The girl immediately and unquestioningly takes the bait, giving him her basket with its weapon inside it. To book readers and film watchers she resembles the classic female martyr of horror films. Her encounter with the world of human values and practices is humiliating and limiting. The writer’s purpose, characterization, and readability shows one of many ways of pinpointing the author’s bias. Like the other human hunters in the collection, he keeps a trophy of his kill to gloat over it – the grandmother’s nightcap – and sits ‘patiently, deceitfully’ for his next victim, concealing the ‘tell-tale stained’ sheets, again a grotesque image of a sexual attack. Wolves are not enemies to be feared but her ‘foster kindred’ – an adoptive family, related to her through love, not blood. When the woman sees his corpse and cries over it, the second husband beats her. Whereas in the previous story the child’s competence is a product of a tough life in which survival skills have been learnt by necessity, the child in this story has very different roots. At the heart of this story is the hideous coercion that needs no violence, as the girl already knows what the ‘tender wolf’ is capable of. By echoing elements of the allegory intended to scare and thus caution young girls, she evokes preconceptions and stereotypes about gender roles. Showing no grief for grandmother is also a defence mechanism for survival. The first story, ‘The Werewolf’, is told with abrupt, brittle relish, sketching out a familiar Gothic pastoral scene in frighteningly flippant shorthand. As in many of the other stories in this collection – ‘The Bloody Chamber’, ‘The Courtship of Mr Lyon’, ‘The Erl King’, ‘Puss-in-Boots’ and ‘The Tiger’s Bride’ – an innocent young woman finds herself isolated in a rich man’s home. Wolf-man or full-man, these husbands are exactly the same in their abuse of women. Yet its hammy trappings conceal true horror. He turns back into a wolf, is murdered by the second husband whereupon he turns back into a man. The movie is based on a novel and a screenplay by Angela Carter, who has taken Red Riding Hood as a starting-place for the stories, which are secretly about the fearsomeness of sexuality. Instead, she sedately removes her clothes, implying that she is thrilled by the danger she is in. Grief would be of no use to her, so she doesn’t indulge in it. Bluebeard. is a vibrant collection of stories which still cause controversy due to their explicit content and rebelliousness. “The Company of Wolves” by Angela Carter follows the story line of the classic children’s fairytale “Little Red Riding Hood” which is known universally in the western world. He haunts graveyards like a zombie, casts no reflection and goes about only at night like a vampire, and eats corpses like a cannibal. ‘The Company of Wolves’ features an anecdote thrown in almost as an aside, in which a woman marries a young man who flees to the forest and turns into a wolf. The woman remarries and has a son. Society allows no place for debating moral rights and wrongs; the story satisfies its characters while leaving the reader morally unmoored. She is ‘wild, impatient of restraint, capricious’ – all the things a nice young lady is not supposed to be. When he bets her a kiss that he will make it to grandmother’s house before her she purposely dawdles, wanting him to win. Published: 1st Jan 1970 in English Literature. By Angela Carter . The now-phlegmatic narrator describes her with pity and irony as a ‘wise child’ who sleeps ‘sweet and sound’ between a wolf’s paws. However this child is not hardened like her counterparts because \"she has been too much loved ever to feel scared.\" Because she is the youngest and most beautiful child, her family has coddled her and protected her from life's harsh realities. 'The Company of Wolves' is a horror tale about a trapped, abused girl who goes to her fate with a resignation she rewrites as acceptance. Remix Analysis of Angela Carter’s “The Werewolf”. The passive female image does not apply to her. Instead Carter could have made the wolf passive, but she goes that little bit further to reject the idea that you can return to ‘normal’ after having such experiences. Alice does not become the lady of the house but instead behaves with a refreshing lack of human narcissism and taught femininity. Why not take a few moments to tell us what you think of our website? Another way to read it is that because the girl is an active protagonist and goes against the idea of what females should be, she doesn’t fit into society. An innocent girl meets wolves and werewolves in fantasies echoing the tale of Little Red Riding Hood. The wolf-man says he wants to eat her, but ‘she knew she was nobody’s meat.’ Is is then apparent that she has been playing with him all along, revealing her to be cunning. However, in keeping with the sympathetic way wolves are described throughout these stories, it flees when the girl cuts off its paw and it gives a ‘gulp, almost a sob’. She is not even referred to as ‘she’ – only ‘the inedible hair’ and ‘the bones’. Gender Roles in Angela Carter's The Company of Wolves In her transformation of the well-known fable "Little Red Riding Hood," Angela Carter plays upon the reader's familiarity. The wolves are used as a metaphor to show and represent the men who would be out to take the virginity of a girl or a woman. Back to Little Red Cap - Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm. When a wolf does indeed attack the girl, it has red eyes like the devil. Unlike ladies taught to narcissistically watch themselves in the mirror at all times, she does not recognise her own reflection. He is strange, and Alice is strange, but they’re strange in different ways which do not impinge upon each other. She has undergone a transformation. Unlike the hard and wary girl in the previous story, this one is blithe and confident, ‘quite sure the wild beasts cannot harm her’. There is a horrible murder scene that is redolent of rape: the man strips naked to attack the elderly woman on the bed. In Carter’s hands, they grow rich in symbolism and seductive, with her typically poetic use of … Her laughter is the twist, the moment of realisation. Is the grandmother actually a werewolf, or is she just a victim of superstition and paranoia? Like the child in \"The Werewolf,\" the heroine here lives in a bitterly cold region where people grow up fast and live short, hard lives. The first husband returns, sees that his wife has slept with another man, calls her a ‘whore’ and attacks her son. Published under a Creative Commons Non-Commercial Licence. Hence, in comparison to Perrault’s version, ‘The Company of Wolves’ by Angela Carter. Maybe superstition provided her with a motive to get rid of grandmother, allowing her to take charge of her own life. At the beginning of this story, before any characters are introduced, readers are told about the harsh lifestyle of the ‘northern country.’ Here ‘the Devil holds picnics in the graveyards and invites the witches’ and ‘wreaths of garlic on the doors keep out vampires.’ Carter impresses upon readers that superstition is prominent in this place. This prepares them for the coming tale and makes it seem more feasible, given the peculiar setting. The content she took from Little Red Riding Hood is awareness; more specifically adolescent and sexual awareness. Except as otherwise permitted by your national copyright laws this material may not be copied or distributed further. There are, however, many changes to … Ten beloved fairy tales, given new life by the one and only Angela Carter. 'Wolf-Alice' presents a new and liberated female physical standard, one which is very different from the delicate human martyr-beauties in all the other stories. 38 reviews. ‘Wolf-Alice’ turns into a sweet, non-carnal, non-romantic story of animal comfort, in which the wolverine tenderness Alice has known enables her to ‘save’ the Duke, who is lying injured in bed. So despite Red Riding Hood surviving and happily moving into grandmother’s old house, the ending isn’t completely joyful. So whilst the girl is happy at the end, the sting comes in that she is altered and poor grandmother is still a pile of bones under the bed. The girl arrives at her grandmother’s home, and the grandmother is ‘like a thing possessed’ – indeed, she is a werewolf, the same one who attacked the girl. By the end of the story she has engaged in sexual activity and obtained bestial qualities in order to save herself. The British Library is not responsible for the content of external Internet sites, Please consider the environment before printing, All text is © British Library and is available under Creative Commons Attribution Licence except where otherwise stated. For this revisioning of Little Red Riding Hood, Angela Carter has used as hypotext an oral folktale collected around 1885, the one translated from P. Delarue and M. L. Teneze, Le conte populaire Français (The French Popular tale), published by Erasme, 1957. Women are no longer so innocent, and much harder to trick. Bidisha is a writer, a BBC radio and TV broadcaster and a Trustee of the Booker Prize Foundation. ‘Little Red Riding Hood’; by Charles Perrault and Angela Carter’s ‘The Company of Wolves’; are perfect examples. Clearly she is not the standard, innocent child of Perrault’s and  the Grimm’s versions. It was ‘peasants’ shotguns’ that killed her adoptive wolf-mother, and the nuns she is taken in by poke her with sticks ‘to rouse her’. Her confidence comes from the inner strength provided by happiness and emotional security: ‘she has been too much loved ever to feel scared’. Therefore, she ‘prospered’ living out in the forest where she could live on her own terms. This can be found in her selection of short stories within ‘Bloody Chamber’. This is a surreal piece of prose written by Carter, where Carter clearly intertwines the compassion and sorrow of the wolves with the supposed naïve innocence of Little Red Riding Hood. In these stories, ‘Little Red Riding Hood’ has morphed. It combines postmodern self-awareness with the other-worldly glamour and unashamed intensity of classic horror and fantasy fiction. In this essay I look at the last three stories in The Bloody Chamber: ‘The Werewolf’, ‘The Company of Wolves’ and ‘Wolf-Alice’. In Angela Carter's short story, "The Company of Wolves," Red Riding Hood is "afraid of nothing." February 6, 2017. Carter’s characters are bold and edgy, and not just simply difficult for the wolves to mislead but impossible for them to overcome. In an unpleasant yet aptly misanthropic twist, the neighbours come in, see a wart on the grandmother’s severed hand, have her for a witch and stone her to death. The text in this article is available under the Creative Commons License. (based on "Little Red Riding Hood") A girl goes to visit her grandmother, but encounters a werewolf on the way, whose paw she cuts off with a knife. Your views could help shape our site for the future. It's based on a story written by Angela Carter who herself used a lot of references to "Little Red Riding Hood". As ever in Carter’s work, the worst beasts a girl could encounter in the forest are men, not animals. The film mostly takes place in a dream-world and the plot cleverly mixes stories within stories to a point were there isn't actually an over-all story-line nor does there seem to be a clearly defined point to it all. Life is ‘harsh, brief, poor’, flowers don’t grow and the ghastly supernatural intermingles, unquestioned, with the bleak natural: vampires are warded off with garlic, children are born with second sight. I believe that this will continue, and I admire Carter for her imagination and confidence. Claiming kinship with the fable of Little Red Riding Hood, the story introduces Eve (Lucie Debay), who will serve as both victim and heroine. Angela Carter’s work is published in the UK by Vintage, Virago, Penguin Classics. Angela Carter’s The Company of Wolves is a different adaptation of Little Red Riding Hood where, instead of the little girl becoming the victim to a villainous wolf, she embraces the wolf as an experience beyond anything she has known or been taught. Indeed the mirror is, as it is for all women, an ‘invisible cage’. The second part of the story looks at the set-up of Little Red Riding Hood again. She is calm, confident, and in control. By breaking from this well-known structure, Carter frees Red Riding Hood and turns her into a stronger, more independent, and more rounded character than what the original tale had. Their howling is, again taking from stage and performance, an ‘aria of fear’, entertaining and beautiful even when expressing dread. Humans bring pain, persecution and misery. 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