Question. That’s because an uneven number of participants across groups sometimes threatens internal validity and makes it difficult to compare groups. The results section should be in condensed format and lacking interpretation. It’s rarely appropriate to include raw data in your results section. Writing up your results – Guidelines based on APA style In a results section, your goal is to report the results of the data analyses used to test your hypotheses. Note that when a p-value is less than .001, we do not report p = .000. What’s the difference between results and discussion? What should I include in an APA results section? Write up the results in the past tense because you’re describing the outcomes of a completed research study. Exact p levels should be reported where possible. According to APA journal standards, it’s necessary to report all relevant hypothesis tests performed, estimates of effect sizes, and confidence intervals. r(degress of freedom) = the r statistic, p = p value. Subgroup analyses come with a high chance of false positive results, because performing a large number of comparison or correlation tests increases the chances of finding significant results. If you don’t, your results won’t make much sense to the reader. If you have more than 3 or 4 variables in your paper, you might want to put this descriptive information in a table to keep the text from being too choppy and bogged down (see the APA manual for ideas on creating good tables). There are two ways to report p values. by When you prepare graphs for an APA-style research report, there are some general guidelines that you should keep in mind. The r statistic should be stated at 2 decimal places. Run a Bivariate Correlation by going to Analyze Æ Correlate Æ Bivariate… Correlations 1 .869** .435** .070 .000. Be sure to note how you combined data to come up with variables of interest. But in quantitative research, it’s considered important to separate the objective results from your interpretation of them. Italicized Latin/Roman letters are often used. Formatting statistics and numbers in APA style. Reporting Statistics in APA Format Cronbach's Alphas Values to report: ... Correlations Values to report: correlation (r) and significance level (p). The correlation between these two variables was positive and moderate, r(134) = .57, p < 0.01. 1. Degrees of freedom for r is N - 2 (the number of data points minus 2). By far the best way to learn how to report statistics results is to look at published papers. P-values below .001 are reported as p < .001. What doesn’t belong in your results section? First, the graph should always add important information rather than repeat information that already appears in the text or in a table. Report the following for each hypothesis test: When reporting complex data analyses, such as factor analysis or multivariate analysis, present the models estimated in detail, and state the statistical software used. You don't need to provide the formula for r. 5. the magnitude and direction of the effect. For that reason, raw data and any interpretations of your results are not included in the results section. Include sample sizes (overall and for each group) as well as appropriate measures of central tendency and variability for the outcomes in your results section. The APA has specific guidelines for writing up statistics and numbers. The American Psychological Association provides specific guidelines on how to report the results in an APA formatted paper. When directly referring to a numerical quantity or operator: In the main text: “the mean accuracy was higher…”. Results section Summary of findings including statistical analyses Report tests in order hypotheses were presented Lead reader through analyses in logical order Best to use same sentence format throughout if uses same statistic. This is because p-values can never be equal to zero. Categorical variables can be reported using proportions, while quantitative data can be reported using means and standard deviations. When should I use tables or figures to present numbers? SPSS – Correlations in APA Format By Ruben Geert van den Berg under SPSS Data Analysis. This belongs in your discussion section. If anything is still unclear, or if you didn’t find what you were looking for here, leave a comment and we’ll see if we can help. In APA style, the results section includes preliminary information about the participants and data, descriptive and inferential statistics, and the results of any exploratory analyses. This article introduces the basic concept of ICC in the content of reliability analysis. Report means and standard deviations 6. Use these standards to answer your research questions and report your data analyses in a complete and transparent way. Each analysis you run should be related to your hypotheses. Effect sizes indicate how impactful the outcomes of a study are. Reporting a Pearson Correlation in APA Note – that the reporting format shown in this learning module is for APA. Briefly report the results of any other planned or exploratory analyses you performed. Remind the reader of the type of test you used and the comparison that was made. Present descriptive statistics for each primary, secondary, and subgroup analysis. Your results section is where you objectively report all relevant findings and leave them open for interpretation by readers. Frequently asked questions about results in APA, Letters when they are statistical symbols or algebraic variables: Cohen’s. Say goodbye to losing marks on your assignment! Looking at the Results sections of some published papers will give you a feel for the most common ways. Identify reason for analysis 2. December 21, 2020 Happily, the basic format for citing Pearson's r is not too complex, as you can see here (the color red means you substitute in the appropriate value from your study). Reporting a Spearman's Rho in APA 4. APA Style Manual: When required to report results using APA style, the authoritative source is the Publication Manual of the APA. Example: “A Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was computed to assess the relationship between a nurse’s assessment of patient pain and the patient’s self assessment of his/her own pain. 5. Make sure to present data only once throughout the paper and refer to any tables and figures in the text. Presented below are some examples of correct presentation of statistical results in APA style. While you should state whether the findings of statistical tests lend support to your hypotheses, refrain from forming conclusions to your research questions in the results section. Data can become unusable due to equipment malfunctions, improper storage, unexpected events, participant ineligibility, and so on. Please click the checkbox on the left to verify that you are a not a bot. Remember to drop the leading 0 from both r and the p value (i.e., not 0.34, but rather .34). Here are some things you should watch out for. Clearly, there are other correct ways of presenting this material in terms of descriptions of the experimental design and basic style of expression. Identify analysis 3. The results section of a quantitative research paper is where you summarize your data and report the findings of any relevant statistical analyses. Before diving into your research findings, first describe the flow of participants at every stage of your study and whether any data were excluded from the final analysis. 1. It’s important to follow capitalization, italicization, and abbreviation rules when referring to statistics in your paper. Test type and use . Preliminary analyses revealed no violations of the assumptions of normality, linearity and homoscedasticity. Reporting Results of Common Statistical Tests in APA Format The goal of the results section in an empirical paper is to report the results of the data analysis used to test a hypothesis. The APA manual provides rigorous guidelines for what to report in quantitative research papers in the fields of psychology, education, and other social sciences. For each hypothesis test performed, you should present confidence intervals and estimates of effect sizes. Identify the proportion of data that wasn’t included in … There was a nonsignificant correlation of .08 (p = n.s) between self-efficacy and grade-point average. The exact descriptive statistics that you report depends on the types of data in your study. In qualitative research, results and discussion are sometimes combined. WRITING UP RESULTS APA style guide #2. For the sake of concise writing, you can safely assume that readers of your paper have professional knowledge of how statistical inferences work. 1. The moderate-caffeine group was faster (ms) on average (M = 490, SD = 52) than the no-caffeine group (M = 523, SD = 45). For every variable of interest, explain how you operationalized it. The discussion interprets the meaning of the results, puts them in context, and explains why they matter. Results Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated to explore the relationship between scores on the PCOISS and a number of measures of wellbeing (Satisfaction with Life scale, Positive Affect scale, Negative Affect scale, Perceived Stress scale). How to Interpret a Pearson Correlation Results in APA Style? APA style is very precise about these. However, an additional 12 participants failed to complete it, resulting in a final total of 208 participants. When reporting statistical results, you should first address primary research questions before moving onto secondary research questions and any exploratory or subgroup analyses. But since they are estimates, it’s recommended that you also provide confidence intervals of effect sizes. The variables shoe size and height were found to be strongly correlated, r(128) = .89, p < .01. Reporting Statistics in APA Format PSYC 210—Burnham Reporting Results of Descriptive and Inferential Statistics in APA Format The Results section of an empirical manuscript (APA or non-APA format) are used to report the quantitative results of descriptive statistics and inferential statistics that were applied to a set of data. Complex regression procedures like mediation and moderation are best explained with a combination of plain language and a figure. The first way is to cite the alpha value as in the second example above. You will want to include four main things about your Pearson’s r when communicating results to others. Reporting Mediation and Moderation Dr. Jef Kahn, Illinois State University Updated October 5, 2020. Results of any subgroup or exploratory analyses, if applicable. To present between 4 and 20 numbers, try a table. The remaining 220 participants were invited to complete the online study survey in exchange for study credit. Hope you found this article helpful. 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